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Study of Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Medicago sativa L. Cultivated in Egypt.

Study of Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Medicago sativa L. Cultivated in Egypt.









No. Divisions/Titles for Abstract Details

1 Abstract Title Study of Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Medicago sativa L. Cultivated in Egypt.


2 Abstract Source Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 13.


3 Abstract Author(s) Khaleel, A. E., Gad, M. Z., El-Maraghy, S. A., Hifnawy, M. S. & Abdel-Sattar, E.


4 Article Affiliation Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt.


5 Abstract Alfalfa (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world) was reported to be hypocholesterolemic (Hypocholesterolemia is the presence of abnormally low (hypo-) levels of cholesterol in the blood (-emia). Although the presence of high total cholesterol (hyper-cholesterolemia) correlates with cardiovascular disease, a defect in the body's production of cholesterol can lead to adverse consequences as well)and antiatherosclerotic (substance which inhibit atherosclerosis). Saponin glycosides (Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. More specifically, they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foaming they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, and structurally by having one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene derivative)were suggested to be responsible for this activity by neutralizing cholesterol (is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body)in the stomach, enabling it to be excreted from the body. This makes alfalfa superior to the current anti-cholesterol medications which act by blocking cholesterol synthesizing apparatus. This study was undertaken in an attempt to prepare an alfalfa extract with high saponin content and free or low content of other toxic constituents found in alfalfa (canavanine and coumestrol), which causes serious side effects. A patent process was used to render alfalfa toxin free and to produce a drug present in the international market. Our study is based on monitoring the Egyptian crop at two different localities for its saponin, canavanine and coumestrol contents at different growth stages. The study showed that the tested extract of the chosen stage to be biologically studied (hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects) on the basis of the highest saponin content was just before fruiting stage of the locality A. This stage was free from both coumestrol and canavanine. The study proved that the Egyptian crop of alfalfa was found to safely reduce natural cholesterol and to possess a strong antiatherosclerotic activity. This extract (I) produced the most significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the main player in cholesterol transport to the cells and it has been associated with atherosclerosis development and cardiovascular risk)by 85.1 and 88%, respectively, of the corresponding levels in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This decrease is more significant than that produced by gemfibrozil (73 and 74%) upon concomitant administration with a cholesterol enriched diet using the same animal model at the tested dose level. Also, it was obvious that all alfalfa preparations produced significant antioxidant properties. All alfalfa extracts possessed antiatherosclerotic activity as observed by the almost normalization of the aortic sections upon concomitant use of alfalfa extracts with cholesterol-enriched diet.


6 Summary The study showed that the tested extract of the chosen stage to be biologically studied (hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects) on the basis of the highest saponin content was just before fruiting stage of the locality A. This stage was free from both coumestrol and canavanine. The study proved that the Egyptian crop of alfalfa was found to safely reduce natural cholesterol and to possess a strong antiatherosclerotic activity. This extract (I) produced the most significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 85.1 and 88%, respectively, of the corresponding levels in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This decrease is more significant than that produced by gemfibrozil (73 and 74%) upon concomitant administration with a cholesterol enriched diet using the same animal model at the tested dose level. Also, it was obvious that all alfalfa preparations produced significant antioxidant properties. All alfalfa extracts possessed antiatherosclerotic activity as observed by the almost normalization of the aortic sections upon concomitant use of alfalfa extracts with cholesterol-enriched diet.


7 Article Published Date 20-5-2005.


8 Study Type In-vitro.


9 Substances Alfalfa .


10 Diseases Hypercholesterimia.


11 Pharmacological Actions Hypocholesteremic.


12 Link https://goo.gl/DkWHNS








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